Two months ago, on Oct. 7, Hamas and other militant groups based in Gaza launched a cross-border attack in Israel that killed some 1,200 people, according to Israeli officials. In response, Israel launched a military campaign to eradicate Hamas that has devastated Gaza, with the Gazan health authorities saying that more than 15,000 people have been killed, most of them women and children. Israel’s military estimates that it has killed several thousand Hamas fighters.
Here is a timeline of some key events in the war:
Oct. 7: Hamas and other militant groups fire thousands of rockets into Israel and gunmen infiltrate border communities, army bases and an outdoor music festival, killing hundreds and abducting about 240 people. It is the deadliest attack on Israel since its founding. Israeli authorities have said they are investigating reports that the attackers committed widespread sexual violence.
Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu of Israel says in a televised statement that the country is “at war,” and he calls up thousands of military reservists.
Oct. 9: Israel orders a “complete siege” of the Gaza Strip, saying that “no electricity, no food, no water, no fuel” will be allowed into the enclave. Its military pounds Gaza with airstrikes amid signs that it is preparing for a ground invasion.
Oct. 10: Israeli troops mostly retake control of towns near the Gaza Strip from Palestinian gunmen.
Oct. 11: Mr. Netanyahu forms an emergency government, adding two opposition lawmakers, both former army chiefs, to his cabinet.
Oct. 13: Israel’s military orders civilians to evacuate northern Gaza, sparking panic and chaos as thousands move south.
Oct. 17: An explosion outside the Al-Ahli Arab Hospital in Gaza City kills and wounds many people. Palestinian officials blame an Israeli strike. Israeli and American intelligence agencies say that a failed Palestinian rocket launch caused the explosion.
Oct. 18: President Biden visits Israel, where he embraces Mr. Netanyahu and says in a speech that he understands Israel’s “all-consuming rage.” He also warns Israeli leaders about what he says were mistakes the United States made after the 9/11 attacks.
Oct. 20: Hamas releases two American hostages held in Gaza, Judith Raanan and her daughter, Natalie Raanan, after negotiations involving officials in Qatar. Days later, it releases two more hostages, Yocheved Lifshitz, 85, and, Nurit Cooper, 79.
Oct. 27: Amid heavy airstrikes, and shrouded in secrecy and ambiguity, Israel launches a ground invasion into north Gaza from three directions. Cellphone and internet service in the enclave is cut off.
Oct. 31: Israel’s military strikes the Jabaliya neighborhood north of Gaza City with two 2,000-pound bombs, killing dozens of people and wounding hundreds, according to Gazan health officials. Israel says it was targeting a Hamas commander.
Nov. 6: Israel’s military says it has effectively surrounded Gaza City and split Gaza into north and south.
Nov. 15: Israel’s military storms Gaza’s largest hospital, Al-Shifa, which it says doubles as a Hamas military command center, an allegation that Hamas denies. Israel later says it discovered weapons and other evidence that supports its assertions that Hamas operated in a network of tunnels under the complex.
Nov. 24: Israel and Hamas pause fighting in a deal that allows for the release of 102 hostages and for more than 200 Palestinians held in Israeli jails over the course of several days. It also allows for the delivery of more aid to Gaza’s civilians.
Dec. 2: The truce collapses. The Israeli military heavily bombards southern Gaza, claiming to strike more than 400 targets, and orders residents to evacuate several towns and villages, spreading confusion and fear as people sought shelter.
Dec. 5: The Israeli military describes house-to-house gun battles with Hamas fighters in the southern city of Khan Younis. Civilians and aid workers describe some of the heaviest bombardment of the conflict and deteriorating humanitarian conditions.